Heavy oil fuel composition is complex, the calorific value parameter is to ensure that the burner can provide rated heat prerequisites, kinematic viscosity, mechanical impurities and water content parameters directly affect the combustion adequacy; kinematic viscosity, mechanical impurity content and water content exceed the standard will cause the heavy oil in the burner nozzle atomization effect is poor, oil mist can not be fully mixed with air, combustion adequacy can not be guaranteed, to ensure the adequacy of combustion, in the selection of heavy oil must meet the above parameters requirements.
2.The effect of atomization on the adequacy of combustion
Fuel oil in the oil pump pressure or oil pump pressure and high-pressure air under the joint action of the atomization nozzle through the oil gun is fog spray, the size of the oil fog particles depends on the effect of atomization, poor atomization, fog particles, and air mixing contact area is small, the combustion adequacy is poor.
3.The effect of wind-oil ratio on the adequacy of combustion
The combustion of heavy oil is inseparable from the participation of air, and the air supply required by the oil burner is provided by the fan, and the cooperation between the air supply and the oil supply is called the air-oil ratio. The air supply should be adjusted in proportion to the size of the burner when adjusting the oil supply, in order to ensure the proper amount of air required for normal combustion, the proportion is out of proportion will inevitably bring about a decline in the adequacy of combustion.
4.Maintain the appropriate pressure
Maintain the appropriate pressure is conducive to shorten the fuel ignition delay time, extend the heating time, improve heating efficiency, and can ensure full combustion of fuel. The steady flame plate is generally made into a radial dispersion ramp outlet, which can form a strong rotating vortex when the air flows through, strengthening the fuel particles to continue to spread and mix along the axial and radial directions.
5.The influence of altitude on the adequacy of combustion
The design working environment of the conventional heavy oil burner is below 500 meters above sea level, when the actual use environment exceeds 500 meters above sea level, the density of air will drop with the rise of altitude, and the total amount of oxygen in the air provided by the same burner at work will be less than the amount of oxygen required for normal combustion, resulting in inadequate combustion.
Complete premixing means that the air required for combustion is obtained entirely by gas injection, i.e., the gas and air are completely mixed before combustion.
(1) complete combustion, chemical incomplete combustion loss is less;
(2) less excess air, when used for direct heating of industrial furnaces will not cause excessive oxidation;
(3) high combustion temperature, easy to meet the high temperature process requirements;
(4) Flameless burner with fire escape has high combustion intensity, high volumetric heat load, and can reduce the volume of the combustion chamber;
(5) no fire channel, easy to burn low calorific value of gas.
(1) the possibility of backfire, the adjustment range is small, in order to prevent backfire, the head structure is more complex and bulky;
(2) large heat load burner, the structure is huge and bulky.
(3) The noise is large, especially when the high pressure and high load is more so.
A good performance of fully automatic oil (gas) burner installed on a boiler, whether it still has the same good combustion performance, depends largely on whether the gas dynamic characteristics of the two match. Only a good match can bring out the burner performance, ensure the stable combustion of the furnace, achieve the expected heat output and obtain a good thermal efficiency of the boiler.
The power of the burner refers to the full combustion, how much mass (kg) or volume of fuel it can burn per hour, while also giving the corresponding heat output. And the boiler is calibrated for steam production, but also marked fuel consumption, the choice of the two must match.
2、Matching of gas power characteristics
A single automatic burner is like a flame thrower, the flame is sprayed into the furnace (combustion chamber) to achieve complete combustion and heat output in the furnace; burner manufacturers to determine the complete combustion of the product is carried out in a specific standard combustion chamber, so the conditions of the standard experiment is generally used as the burner and boiler selection conditions. These conditions are summarized as: (1) power; (2) gas flow pressure in the chamber; (3) space size and geometry of the chamber (diameter and length). The so-called gas power characteristics match, which means the degree of meeting these three conditions.
3, the impact of the size and geometry of the furnace chamber
For boilers, the space size of the furnace chamber, in the design of the first decision in the selection of the heat load intensity of the furnace, according to which the volume of the chamber can be initially determined. After the volume of the furnace chamber is determined, its shape and size should also be determined. The design principle is to make full use of the volume of the furnace chamber; try to avoid dead ends, to have a certain depth, reasonable flow direction, to ensure that there is enough reaction time, so that the fuel is completely burned in the furnace chamber. A boiler to be repeatedly debugged to have a good match with the burner.
4, the gas pressure in the furnace chamber
In an oil (gas) boiler, the hot air flow from the burner, through the furnace, heat exchanger, flue gas collector and exhaust pipe discharge to the atmosphere, consisting of a fluid thermal process. The furnace chamber must maintain a certain flue gas pressure, for the burner called back pressure, for boilers without induced draft device, the chamber pressure must be higher than the atmospheric pressure after taking into account the loss of pressure head along the way.
The good or bad combustion conditions of oil and gas boilers and furnaces mainly depend on the operating performance of the burner. Oil Burner atomization quality is not good or unreasonable air distribution will cause the following adverse effects.
(1) incomplete combustion, pollution of the boiler tail heating surface, the exhaust temperature rises, and even cause secondary combustion.
(2) Increasing heat loss from incomplete combustion of combustible gases.
(3) Increasing heat loss from incomplete combustion of combustible solids.
(4) Coking in the oil burner outlet or furnace chamber.
(5) There are accidents such as flameout, gunning and even furnace explosion.
1.Waste liquid types
The organic waste streams in waste stream burners are extremely diverse. Organic waste streams are divided into three categories according to their chemical composition.
① Halogen-free organic waste streams. The organic compounds in this waste stream contain only C, H, O and sometimes S. When the waste stream contains less water, it is combustible and can be used as fuel (such as waste of organic
②Halogen-containing organic waste liquids. The organic compounds in waste liquids include CC4, vinyl chloride, bromomethane, etc. The calorific value of the waste liquid depends on the content of halogens. During incineration treatment, the need for auxiliary fuel is determined according to its calorific value. After oxidation in the incinerator, the waste liquid will produce monomeric halogens or hydrogen halides (HF, HCl, HBr, etc.), which can be removed or recovered as needed.
③Containing high salinity organic degree liquid. Such waste streams containing high concentrations of inorganic or organic salts will produce molten salts after combustion, so refractory materials, selection of combustion temperature and determination of residence time will be the main considerations in the design, and since such waste streams usually have low calorific value, auxiliary fuels are needed to achieve complete combustion.
2.The incineration process
General organic waste collection incineration process includes pre-batch surface high temperature incineration, waste heat recovery and tail gas treatment and other stages.
Pre-treatment mainly includes the aisle into the collection, plantain hair according to shrinkage, adjust the viscosity, etc., the purpose of which is to provide optimal conditions for the subsequent incineration over the process. The nature of the hair liquid varies: For COD value is very different, organic waste liquid incineration treatment can be directly sent to the incinerator burner for incineration treatment, in the face of the calorific value is not very high waste high, calorific value is also very high organic waste liquid, organic waste liquid containing relatively high moisture, you can first steam the liquid, you can add auxiliary fuel to help waste liquid for incineration.
When the waste liquid does not contain harmful low boiling point organics, the method of direct concentration of high temperature flue gas can be considered, and then incineration can be carried out after concentration. However, the concentration method with indirect heating should be used for organic waste streams containing harmful low-boiling components.
Boiler burner refers to the burner used on the boiler, boiler burner is the most important equipment in the supporting auxiliary equipment of oil and gas boilers, mainly composed of fuel injector, air distributor and igniter and other components.
The role of the injector: to control the amount of fuel in the firebox; atomize the fuel to ensure the quality of combustion in the furnace.
The role of the air distributor is to control the primary air volume and secondary air volume, to create conditions for the combustion air to fully mix with the oil mist, to promote rapid vaporization and decomposition of the oil mist, in order to facilitate stable and full combustion.
Igniter is an electric spark generator, used to ignite the oil mist. In addition, there are flame receptors and artificial ignition holes, etc.
Atmospheric burner usually uses gas to induce primary air, so it belongs to the induced burner. According to the different gas pressure, it can be divided into low-pressure pilot type and high (medium) pressure pilot type two. The former is mostly used for residential appliances, and the latter is mostly used for industrial installations.
The advantages of atmospheric burner
1.than the natural draft diffuser burner flame short, strong fire, high combustion temperature.
2.can burn different nature of gas, more complete combustion, high combustion efficiency, less CO content in the flue gas.
3.It can apply low-pressure gas, and no air supply equipment is needed because the air depends on gas inhalation.
4.Strong adaptability, can meet the needs of more processes.
The disadvantages of atmospheric burner
1.Because only part of the air is premixed, not all the air required for combustion, so the thermal intensity of the fire hole and combustion temperature is higher than that of the natural draft diffusion burner, but it is still limited and still cannot meet the needs of certain processes.
2.When the heat load is large, the structure of the multi-hole burner is relatively bulky.
Biogas boiler is a kind of biogas burning boiler, a new energy boiler suitable for slaughterhouse and aquaculture farm, using ultra low nitrogen burner to fully burn biogas in the boiler, green and environmental protection in line with national standards. Biogas is mainly fermented from animal manure, dirt after slaughtering, branches, leaves, etc. It is a combustible gas produced under anaerobic conditions in digesters or sewage treatment, generally with methane content above 50-80% and high calorific value. The calorific value of one cubic meter is about 5500 calories, compared to one kilogram of coal. Biogas is used to heat hot water or produce steam by burning heat in a specially designed boiler. As a new type of boiler, it does not require running costs, solves environmental pollution and produces no pollutants, uses automatic control and is easy to use.
New energy equipment biogas burner, i.e. biogas burner, is a new type of energy equipment with a wide range of applications for industrial occasions that require fuel combustion to heat materials or reactions. Biogas boiler burner is divided into biogas boiling water boiler burner, biogas hot water boiler burner, biogas steam boiler burner, biogas organic heat carrier boiler burner according to medium; biogas heating boiler burner, biogas bath boiler burner, biogas steaming boiler burner, etc. according to usage.
Methane boiler, biogas boiler, atmospheric pressure biogas products, biogas equipment product structure features.
The boiler is fueled by renewable energy biogas, running pollution-free, noiseless, environmentally friendly products, which can be used for heating and hot water.
Biogas boiler burner, biogas boiler, atmospheric biogas products, biogas equipment are equipped with controller, good safety performance, automatic ignition, automatic ventilation, automatic stop, in addition to anti-corrosion, explosion-proof function. Adopting the combustion structure suitable for biogas, the combustion is adequate and the output meets the standard.
biogas boiler burner, biogas boiler, atmospheric pressure biogas products, biogas equipment, painted board packaging, compact structure, beautiful appearance, not easy to rust, set up less area.
The specific advantages of the biogas burner lie in.
1, stretching the combustion area, weakening part of the combustion intensity, in a certain period of time, inhibit the formation of NOx.
2, low load combustion smoothly. Because the lower air volume is reduced, the fuel is burned very smoothly even at low concentration. Even 40% load stable combustion can be achieved.
3、When low load, the furnace flame filling degree is better, and the water-cooled wall absorbs heat evenly.
Under the requirement of environmental protection policy, industry now also attaches great importance to energy saving and emission reduction measures. Low-NOx combustion technology has certain advantages in environmental protection, but at the same time, it also has certain influence on the operation of boilers, so it is necessary to further strengthen the measures to deal with the problems occurring in new environmental protection technology, and to strive for the maximum environmental protection mechanism for sustainable industrial development. This paper discusses the relevant content, which has certain practical significance.
(1) the impact of combustion stability, the stability of the boiler is reflected in many aspects, its most important manifestation is in the stability of the temperature and the stability of the operation process. Low nitrogen burner in the primary jet port set thick and light combination, the use of thermal reflux relay combustion and other technologies, in the combustion process according to the asymmetric principle of heat and power design, pyrolysis jet port of coal powder and the boiler center of the composite jet vortex connection, high reflux rate of hot reflux toner to extend the residence time, improve the heat generated by combustion within the vortex, boiler low nitrogen transformation and the number of oxygen control, in the combustion process Oxygen is needed to meet the combustion conditions to generate heat, and as the oxygen number is controlled the heat generation is inhibited, thus affecting the operation of the boiler. These two operating methods have an impact on the stable operation of the boiler.
(2) The internal environment of the boiler has less influence on the low-NOx burner nozzle than the conventional burner, so the flame produced by the fuel moves. The reduction in combustion area reduces the boiler's reception of temperature, while the pressure state generated inside the boiler changes, leading to incongruity. The modification of the low-NOx burner equipment changes the boiler components and the operation is different. The modification of the low-NOx burner affects the oxygen quantity inside the boiler to a certain extent. Usually there is a maximum operating oxygen quantity and a minimum operating oxygen quantity, and the adjustment of the unit cannot keep up with the adjustment of the oxygen quantity and produces negative oxygen. The change of the oxygen quantity and the change of the combustion degree change the pressure inside and outside the boiler and change the internal environment, and the personnel concerned need to adjust the oxygen quantity and carry out the air supply operation directly.
(3) The boiler reheating temperature is affected, and the original burner elevation is lowered after the low-NOx burner transformation, which has a greater impact on the reheating temperature. After the burner transformation, the unit coordination is slow, and the boiler pressure tracking adjustment cannot keep up, so it is easy to have overshoot and temperature change. The modified low-NOx burner has a set of swinging nozzles, when the nozzle swings up the steam temperature will rise, the temperature will drop when the nozzle swings down, but because there is only one set of swinging nozzles so the speed of temperature adjustment is limited, the adjustment time is too long plus the wind sub-ratio is controlled by the low oxygen conditions, affecting the efficiency of the machine. In order to ensure that the boiler outlet temperature is within the low load range, a powder manufacturing system must be used, which will lead to high temperatures on the heating surface, making it difficult to overtemperature. At the same time, the outlet temperature should be controlled within a certain range, which affects the normal operation of the boiler.
(4) the impact on the coking of the furnace chamber, low nitrogen burner in the use of the process, although the burner in the operation process will appear coking phenomenon, especially when starting the lower powder making system, will have an impact on the coking of the furnace chamber, but in the operation process, the burner nozzle is still coking phenomenon, especially when starting the lower powder making system, it will obviously affect the negative pressure, indicating that the combustion zone condition is not good, because the main combustion zone for oxygen deficiency combustion, so the cold wall coking phenomenon will appear near the burner, especially when starting the lower powder making system, which will obviously affect the boiler combustion condition, indicating that the combustion zone condition is not good because the main combustion zone carries out oxygen deficiency and oxygen deprivation, so the cold wall coking phenomenon will appear near the burner, which has an impact on the furnace coking.
(5) The low nitrogen burner increases the combustibility of the slag while reducing the NO yield. Low nitrogen combustion technology uses low temperature and low oxygen conditions for combustion, the more the temperature in the combustion zone drops, the greater the impact of pulverized coal ignition, the oxygen in the combustion zone drops, the combustion capacity of pulverized coal decreases, the combustion process also increases, the combustibility of slag increases, the burner nozzle area changes, the mixing wind is delayed, and the pulverized coal airflow in the boiler.
The burner is a kind of equipment that mixes fuel and air reasonably to make the fuel fire steadily and burn completely, and the burner is used to burn pulverized coal, liquid fuel and gas fuel in boilers and industrial furnaces, etc. Burners can be divided into three categories according to the different fuels burned: pulverized coal burners, oil burners and gas burners.
Pulverized coal burner: It refers to the combustion device that can make pulverized coal burn fully in a short time and produce high temperature vortex.
EBICO representative model EC1800
oil burner: divided into light oil (kerosene, diesel), heavy oil (residual oil) and oil and gas dual-use burner.
Oil burner oil fuel characteristics: oil is a liquid fuel, and the boiling point of liquid fuel is always lower than its ignition temperature, so the burning of oil is actually in the gaseous state. When the oil is burning, the direct participation in the combustion is not the liquid state of the oil, but the "oil gas". Therefore, the combustion of oil droplets includes evaporation, diffusion and combustion of three processes, and is carried out simultaneously.
1、Heavy oil burner: Heavy oil is a by-product of crude oil after refining, generally made of cracked heavy oil, depressurized heavy oil, atmospheric heavy oil or waxy oil, etc. modulated in different proportions. Heavy oil burner is a combustion device specially designed to improve the combustion performance of heavy oil with high viscosity and poor atomization performance.
EBICO representative model EC-NQR
2、Light oil burner: Light oil mostly refers to diesel oil, which is an oily product of petroleum refining and consists of a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Light oil burner refers to the combustion device that uses light oil material as the main fuel.
EBICO representative model EC-R
3、Oil and gas dual-use burner: a burner that can burn both oil/gas fuels simultaneously or separately
EBICO representative model EC-GGR/EP-GG/ES-GNQ/EBS-GNQ
Gas burner: A device that burns gaseous fuel consisting of a gas nozzle and an air regulator.
EBICO representative model EC-GR
Pre-mixed partial air burner, primary air coefficient is usually taken from 0.4 to 0.7. Gas is ejected from the nozzle at a certain flow rate under a certain pressure and enters the suction contraction tube, and the gas draws in primary air by its own energy. In the pilot gas and primary air mixture, and then, through the head fire hole outflow, combustion, the formation of native flame. Atmospheric burner combustion is more complete, easy to use, but the structure is large and bulky when the load is large.
Scope of application
Multi-hole atmospheric burner is widely used, the most widely used in the family and public utilities gas appliances such as household stoves, water heaters, boilers and canteen stoves, in small boilers and industrial furnaces are also used. Single-hole atmospheric burners are widely used in small and medium-sized boilers and some industrial furnaces.
The blast burner is a burner that supplies all the air needed for combustion by the blower, and the primary air coefficient is 0. The combustion heat intensity and flame length depend on the mixture of gas and air. In order to strengthen the combustion, various measures are taken to make the gas and air mix evenly, so the blast burner has various types such as casing type, cyclone blade type, worm shell type and flat flow type. Compared with the same heat load of the pilot burner, the blast burner is more compact; when the gas and air are well mixed, the flame is shorter; the heat load adjustment range is larger; the air has a certain pressure, which provides the possibility of preheating air. However, this kind of burner needs to be equipped with a blower, and the burner itself cannot automatically adjust the mixing ratio of gas and air.
Main advantages of blast burners
1.a high range of regulation due to the exclusion of the possibility of backfires.
2.the preheating temperature of air and gas can be sufficiently high, limited only by the service life of the pipes at high temperatures and by the thermal decomposition of the gas
3.the possibility to keep the high temperature zone of the flame away from the inner surface of the furnace lining and to increase the life of the burner bricks and the metal parts of the burner near the furnace chamber
4.greatly reduce the size of the burner because the mixing process is not inside the burner;
5.It is simpler to change the gas type.
Disadvantages of blower type burner
1.the necessity of using a fan, which increases investment and consumes electrical energy.
2.the ratio of gas to air must be adjusted.
3.the excess air coefficient is large, resulting in higher fuel consumption
4.need to have a large enough chamber space to accommodate the expansion of the flame.